Globalization & the Economic Geography of the GGH
As an ever developing city, the Greater Golden Horseshoe (GGH) has deindustrialize and it result in the urbanization of many areas.
Due to the deindustrialization of this area in the past, over 200,000 secondary jobs (such as factory workers) were lost. In return though, there was a great increase of jobs in the Megazones, which account for almost 450,000 (20%) of jobs in the GGH.
The Megazone areas in the GGH include the Airport Megazone, Toronto-York West Megazone, and Toronto-York East Megazone.
Here is a table to show the different types of quaternary and tertiary jobs in Megazones:
Manufacturing, Construction, Utilities
Finance, Business Services
Voluntary Sector, Government
Higher Education, Hospitals
AIRPORT MEGAZONE (All Parts)
There has also been an increase in Suburban Knowledge-Intensive District (SKID) jobs (such as finance and STEM) of about 35,000 jobs from 2001 to 2011, which account for 6% of jobs in the GGH.
In addition, between 2001 and 2011, Downtown Toronto grew by about 42,000 core jobs and now accounts for 17.5% of core employment in the GGH.
Suburban Knowledge-Intensive District (SKIDS):
- Oakville, which is south of Toronto, located beside Burlington, Milton, and Mississauga.
- Two in Mississauga; one in the sub-area in the southern part of the airport megazone and the other in Meadowvale Business Park (2000 Argentia Rd #310) which is just a bit east of the Meadowvale Go Station.
- Toronto York-east megazone in Markham (approximately 30 km northeast of Downtown Toronto)
- Waterloo, which is south-west of Toronto, located beside Hamilton, Brant, and the city of Guelph.
- Pearson International Airport, 6301 Silver Dart Dr (Mississauga)
- 404/407 highway interchange (Toronto-York East)
- Highways 400 and 407 east to Keele Street and south of Toronto (Toronto-York West)
- Yonge Street
- Finance District (Queen Street south towards front street & University Avenue east towards Yonge Street)
- Business District (College & Bay street)
Older city centers:
- Brampton (suburban city in GTA)
- Hamilton (on the western tip of Lake Ontario)
- Oshawa (60 kilometres east of Downtown Toronto)- St. Catharines (Niagara Region, Northeast of Niagara Falls)
Globalization. The GGH economy had made changes due to the process of globalization. It started with the deindustrialization of the factories in the GGH due to fordism, and we shifted towards a more knowledge-based economy rather than manual.
Hand in hand with fordism, we took an keynesianism approach which is why we currently have public institutions such as Service Ontario and 'free health-care'.
This new economy of ours is the result of post-fordism and the new creative class focus economy we have in present time. Downtown Toronto has been changing more and more with the increase in population density and high-rise buildings due to the change in flow of secondary jobs to more tertiary and quaternary jobs. Nowadays education is a big key to being more successful since many jobs require you to obtain more knowledge than the general people know.
While Downtown is flourishing with many SKIDs and Megazones and job increases, the outer suburban areas have suffered loss of jobs since they were mainly industry based. There is currently a Growth Plan that identifies density and intensification targets, urban growth centres, strategic employment areas, and settlement area restrictions designed to mitigate negative environmental, economic and human health impacts associated with sprawling, uncoordinated growth in the region. It is directed to improving the downtown area and the places around it while we continue towards a cognitive-cultural economy.
- New opportunities
more social/communication based jobs rather than hard manual labour
- Affordable housing becomes a problem because with so many opportunities and such development, the value of the land that buildings sit on become more expensive which push out people who can't afford it
- More commute by more cars going to or from work causes excessive amounts of GHG emissions, especially because there is always traffic congestion.
- Transportation of goods from country to country due to offshoring also means GHG emissions from airplanes, trucks and ships.
- More roads will be built because of the process of urbanization and that results in the paving of soil into concrete.
- Tech innovations
Advancements in tech software
- Equity Distribution
Poor countries v.s rich countries: Many of the poorer countries will be doing all the hard work while the rich countries make profit from the industries because they can afford to do so while poor countries can't.
Off-shored industries to poor countries e.g clothing manufacturing in Bangladesh
- Tariffs (increase or decrease)
In order to keep our products safe and to make profit off other needs, the government will either increase when it benefits them or decrease when they can't afford to risk others doing the same. This can also result in taxes of international shipments to go up as well
- International Trading
When one country has an abundant amount of resources that the other country doesn't they can make profits due to the demand and supply rule.